The Unit of Clinical Neuroimmunology is currently active in both experimental and clinical neuroimmunology with the aim to have a bi-directional transfer of scientific questions and experimental data between the two. The two most complex systems of living organisms are the nervous and immune system. Their interaction, their cross-talk, in health and disease is even more complex, and only partially understood. There is no doubt that gaining knowledge in this field holds promise to unravel the pathogenic mechanism of several diseases whose etiology is elusive, such as multiple sclerosis, but also classical neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease. This laboratory uses gene therapy tools to interrogate experimental models of multiple sclerosis, as a paradigm of a neuroimmunological disease, and is focusing its attention on the relationship between immune cells and classical immune mediators, and neuronal integrity, brain function, cognition.